As the foundational platform of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, blockchain technology enables such innovations as the Internet of things, robotics, artificial intelligence, machine learning, additive manufacturing, and smart supply chains so that more people can participate in the economy and benefit directly from the value they create.1 However, this extraordinary technology may be stalled, usurped, or otherwise suboptimized without governance. We do not mean government, regulation, or top-down, centralized control. Rather, we mean stewardship, a collaboration of stakeholders who are willing to identify their common interests and create incentives to align their behavior around blockchain systems as shared resources. This research examines the impact of governance on blockchain systems. Specifically, it explores governance needs at three levels of the blockchain stack: the Internet layer, the blockchain layer, and the application layer.